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CHAPTER FOUR
Hospitalization in Korea

 

HOSPITAL SUPPORT IN KOREA

In medical planning for combat support, many estimates must be developed from consideration of projected numbers of hospital patients and beds. Estimates may be made, for example, concerning number and classes of hospital beds and hospitals and of medical personnel required to operate them, or numbers and classes of military personnel who will reach personnel replacement depots after hospital treatment. In making these estimates, the planner deals at one time or another with projected hospital admissions; with hospital bed occupancy and the average duration of hospital stay, influencing and influenced by the length of the evacuation policy; and with dispositions from hospital, by type of disposition, returns to duty, out-of-theater evacuations, deaths; and for echelon-to-echelon analysis-transfers to other hospitals. All of these are needed separately for various categories of patients (for example, Army, non-Army; battle casualty, disease and nonbattle injury) and for various types of hospitals (for example, close combat support, and communications zone). While past experience seldom provides exact parallels to the situations with which the planner must deal, it often provides a basis, or at least a starting point, for the development of useful descriptions of relationships among the variables to be considered in planning for hospitalization.

It is extremely difficult at best to present a picture of hospital support in Korea which would reflect the classical configuration of echelon deployment. During the initial stages of the campaign, hospital support was critically short. By the end of the first 6 months, all U.N. casualties had received their care from a maximum of four mobile army surgical hospitals (whose bed capacities increased from 60 to 150 by November 1950), three 400-bed semi mobile evacuation hospitals, four 400-bed field hospitals, one station hospital, and three hospital ships (9). During the year 1951, the same four mobile army surgical hospitals (with bed capacities increased to 200 in May 1951) continued in close support of the frontline divisions. In April 1951, an additional unit of this type became operational. Of the three 400-bed semi mobile evacuation hospitals, only one continued its mission in reasonably close support of combat troops, one was inactivated in December 1950, and the other was returned to Japan upon the withdrawal from North Korea following the intervention of the Chinese Communists When this latter unit was later recommitted in July 1951 at Taejon, it was too far to the rear to permit its utilization in close support of the divisions. A fourth evacuation hospital was at Conju until the fall of 1951 when it moved to Wonju. Although three additional evacuation hospitals were committed in November 1951, they operated more or less in the role of station hospitals. Of the four field hospitals that had been in Korea in 1950, only one functioned in its normal role and it was inactivated in November 1951. Another that had returned to Japan in December 1950 was recommitted at Koje-do in April 1951 to provide medical care for enemy prisoners of war. The other two field hospitals were in Pusan and they also were engaged in treating enemy prisoners. The one station hospital activated in 1950 was operational in Pusan until November 1951, when it was inactivated. A second station hospital was operational in Pusan until October 1951.


HOSPITAL SYSTEM IN KOREA, 1952

With the initiation of truce talks at Kaesong in July 1951 and the subsequent general stabilization of battlelines, the functions of certain hospitals in the chain of evacuation in Korea became identifiable, although somewhat unorthodox, since the functions of those hospitals were not those indicated by their official designations. Nevertheless, by considering the functions actually performed rather than the unit designations, the relationship of the units to the pattern of hospital operations became generally, discernible, and the framework in which these data are presented, represents a reconstruction


56

of the way in which the hospitalization. and evacuation systems operated in Korea in 1952.

In this manner, 10 separate functional types of hospitals could be identified among the 25 U.S. Army hospitals which were operated at various times by designated U.S. Army medical units in Korea during this period. It was also possible to group nine of the 10 types of U.S. Army hospitals in Korea into the two major zones of operations: the field army area (combat zone) and the communications zone. Since the POW (prisoner-of-war) hospitals were established expressly to treat and care for internees and enemy prisoners of war, they are considered as a separate group and have not been identified with either of the two major operational echelons of hospitalization.

Calendar Year 1952 is particularly relevant to this analysis because it represented a period during which the hospitalization and evacuation pattern for Korea remained fairly even, reflecting the relative stabilization of battle lines which took place after initiation of truce talks in mid-1951.

The character of tactical operations is reflected in the frontispiece which shows admissions for U.S. Army personnel to hospital and quarters, for each month, in terms of numbers per year per 1,000 average strength. For the first 5 months of 1952, the trend of the battle casualty rates reflects relatively minor engagements, patrol skirmishes, and occasional raids into enemy territory. In June, the battle casualty admission rate tripled when heavy fighting for possession of strategic heights broke out in the Chorwon-Yonchon sector of the central front. A seesaw "battle of the ridges" continued during July, settling down in August to localized though bitter battles for individual hills: "Old Baldy," "T-Bone," and "Bunker Hill." Fighting for the latter hill raged on indecisively during September. Battle casualty admissions reached their peak for the year during October, when the Communists launched a coordinated attack (the largest of the year) on the western and central fronts. Wounded admissions declined sharply in November and December, reflecting curtailment of combat operations in the severe winter weather.

Variations in admission rates for nonbattle causes reflected annual seasonal influences to some extent; the rate for February represented a winter peak, and rates for January and March were relatively high. The subsequent decline was interrupted in May- increased incidence of neuropsychiatric conditions and of malaria was reported, coincident with increasing intensity of combat- but the downward trend was resumed in September.

It should be pointed out that the situation depicted is perhaps completely atypical in some respects- for example, a very high proportion of patients in Army hospitals in Korea in 1952 were non-Army personnel, chiefly, prisoners of war. On the other hand, these data present a body of data pertaining to all hospitals in a combat area-communications zone system although, ordinarily, readily available logistical information pertains only to fixed hospitals. While the data provide a historically valid quantitative account of a 12-month period of wartime Army hospital operations in Korea as they actually took place, it is necessary to emphasize that any critical analysis of these data should evaluate very carefully the many special factors which influenced them.


SOURCE OF DATA

Each Army medical treatment facility which provided hospital beds was required to submit a Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443) each month to The Surgeon General and to senior medical officers in appropriate intermediate headquarters. These data were obtained from that report, which was submitted weekly as required by Army regulations in effect in 1952 (10). The report included the number of admissions to hospitals, distinguishing "initial" admissions (patients, admitted directly, and patients referred from dispensaries, aid stations, and other nonhospital facilities) from admissions by transfer from other hospitals. The number of dispositions from hospital by type (such as duty, death, evacuation to the United States, and transfers to other medical treatment facilities) was also included, along with the patient census and the number of beds occupied. These data were reported separately for several types of patients- Army, Navy-Marine Corps, and Air Force active-duty personnel, and other patients as a group. When a facility's patients included battle casualties, a separate report pertaining to battle casualties was submitted. Medical treatment facilities providing hospital care for prisoners of war also furnished data pertaining specifically to that category of patients.


OUTPATIENT AND QUARTERS CARE

Although these data deal with hospitalization in Korea, it is of background interest to note briefly the size of the nonhospital patient care workload in


57

that particular area during this period of the Korean War.

Of those who required care at Army medical treatment facilities, the majority were not, of course, admitted to hospital or excused from duty for treatment elsewhere, but were, in reality, attended as outpatients. During 1952, in Korea, there were more than 4,700,000 visits to Army medical treatment facilities by outpatients; and almost 1,500,000 of these outpatient visits were made by Army active-duty personnel, at sick call or at other times (11).

The patient who is admitted in the course of a visit to a medical treatment facility is not reported as an outpatient. He is a "direct admission"- that is, for U.S. military personnel, a patient excused from duty (retained past midnight, so that his organization's Morning Report reflects a change in his status) for treatment in hospital or "quarters," including nonhospital facilities such as aid stations, clearing stations, and dispensaries. During calendar year 1952, Army, hospitals and other Army medical treatment facilities in Korea reported some 133,172 admissions "to hospital and quarters" for Army active-duty personnel, including 12,007 wounded admissions and 121,165 disease and nonbattle injuries.

Of these admissions to hospital and quarters, treatment for a high proportion was completed forward of hospital or while they were in a "quarters" status- they did not become hospital admissions. Thus, in Korea during 1952, there were approximately 73,000 initial admissions to hospital for U.S. Army personnel, the remaining excused-from-duty patients being treated not as hospital patients but in "quarters" or in nonhospital facilities. For U.S. Army personnel in Korea, the rates of admission per year per l,000 average strength were as follows: to hospital and quarters for all causes, 576, and to hospital, 326; for wounded, to hospital and quarters, 52, and to hospital, 44; and for nonbattle causes, to hospital and quarters, 524, and to hospital, 282.


LIMITATIONS OF DATA

Tables 54 through 57 present data on patient flow and other hospitalization data in detail, for all personnel and for U.S. Army personnel, separately, by cause of admission (battle and nonbattle) for individual U.S. Army hospitals operating in Korea during 1952. The data are also presented for functional groups of hospitals.

It will be observed that "initial admissions" have not been supplied for the individual hospitals listed in tables 54-57. While the total number of hospital admissions reported from Korea in 1952 appears to be valid, analysis indicates that the reported number of initial hospital admissions was understated, particularly for Army patients admitted for nonbattle causes, with a corresponding overstatement in the number of admissions by transfer. Such, a disparity may arise when personnel at rearward hospitals assume erroneously that patients from forward units should be reported as "transfers," the presumption being that they will already have been reported as initial admissions by forward hospitals. Unfortunately, such an assumption is perhaps least valid when it is most tempting to make it during periods of peak admission loads. Peak work-loads at hospitals in the rear may reflect increased activity at the front, which, of itself, may have required unusual or changed evacuation procedures- that is, medical treatment facilities normally in the chain of evacuation may have been bypassed, or fighting on a flank may have resulted in a large number of casualties in an area to which forward medical facilities had not yet been deployed, so that the casualties were moved directly to rearward hospitals. Valid estimates of the correct numbers of the initial admissions and of admissions by transfer may be obtained for the entire area by considering the number and nature of the dispositions reported. Reasonably precise "corrections" may also be made in the data pertaining to groups of hospitals. However, estimating "corrections" for individual hospitals is more difficult and requires information not readily available. Consequently, estimated numbers of initial hospital admissions and of admissions by transfer are presented for the Korean area as a whole and for groups of hospitals, but such estimates for individual hospitals are not shown. It may be presumed with some certainty, of course, that virtually all admissions to hospitals in the field army close-support group were initial admissions.


FIELD ARMY AREA HOSPITALS

Units operating hospitals in the field, army area included five, designated as 60-bed mobile army surgical hospitals, but augmented to 200-bed evacuation hospitals. These evacuation hospitals (semimobile) furnisbed close support to the frontline troops. One of these hospitals (8225th MASH) became inoperational at the end of May 1952. At that time, the portion of the line to its front was held by Republic of Korea troops. However, it was later reopened, in September 1952, as a 60-bed


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Table 54.- Patient flow and other hospitalization data,
U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, all personnel, nonbattle causes

Major echelon of operation, type of hospital function, and specific unit designation

Patient
census,
start
1952

Total admissions

Average
daily
number
beds
occupied2

Average
duration
in
hospital
(days)2

Disposition of patients by type

Patient
census,
end
1952

Total1

Initial1

Transfer1

All dis
positions

Duty

Death

Hospital
transfers
intra-
Korea

Evac
uation
to
Japan

Other dis
positions

Field Army area hospitals, total
705
80,706
50,873
29,833
850
7.6
80,618
31,145
372
40,355
7,820
926
793
First level, close support, total
290
35,989
35,989

(4)

209
2.4
36,137
8,173
214
26,773
89
888
142
Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (200-bed),5 total
290
34,157
34,157

(4)

192
2.1
34,335
7,515
212
25,647
89
872
112
8055th MASH (43d Surgical)
92
11,659

(6)

(6)

48
1.7
11,711
1,674
45
9,966

(4)

26
40
8063d MASH (44th Surgical)
59
6,869

(6)

(6)

38
2.0
6,893
1,360
84
5,360
89

(4)

35
8076th MASH (45th Surgical)
24
7,094

(6)

(6)

34
1.8
7,105
1,999
32
4,496

(4)

578
13
8209th MASH (46th Surgical)
91
6,599

(6)

(6)

58
3.2
6,666
1,887
40
4,471

(4)

208
24
8225th MASH (47th Surgical)
24
1,936

(6)

(6)

33
2.5
1,960
595
11
1,354

(4)

(4)

(4)

Surgical hospital (mobile-army) (60-bed), 8225th MASH (47th Surgical)7

(4)

349

(6)

(6)

4
1.3
345
29
2
314

(4)

(4)

4
Transfer point, holding stations (60-120 bed), 629th Medical Clearing Co. (Sep)8

(4)

1,483

(6)

(6)

19
3.0
1,457
629

(4)

812

(4)

16
26
Second level, Army rear, total
415
44,717
14,884
29,833
641
7.3
44,481
22,972
158
13,582
7,731
38
651
Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (400-bed), total
415
40,651
13,313
27,338
505
4.6
40,591
20,212
107
12,755
7,517

(4)

475
11th Evacuation Hospital
199
14,299

(6)

(6)

254
6.6
14.374
8.183
42
3,919
2,229

(4)

125
121st Evacuation Hospital
216
26,352

(6)

(6)

251
3.6
26,218
12,029
65
8,836
5,288

(4)

350
Specialized treatment hospitals, total

(4)

4,066
1,571
2,495
136
19.0
3,890
2,760
51
827
214
38
176
Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury hospital (200-bed),5 8228th MASH (48th Surgical)9

(4)

2,237

(6)

(6)

133
16.8
2,091
1,386
50
618

(4)

37
146
Neuropsychiatric hospital (300-bed), 123d Medical Holding Co. and 212th Psychiatric Detachment10

(4)

1,829

(6)

(6)

48
7.4
1,799
1,374
1
209
214
1
30
Communications Zone hospitals, total (less POW)
1,068
30,288
25,998
13,290
1,162
11.6
39,011
23,573
134
1,806
9,372
4,126
1,345
Station, hospitals (400-bed), total
768
30,207
21,218
8,989
674
8.5
30,351
20,226
32
666
8,806
621
624
21st Evacuation Hospital
282
15,188

(6)

(6)

325
8.1
15,083
10,283
16
263
4,104
417
387
22d Evacuation Hospital11
346
4,564

(6)

(6)

288
9.8
4,910
3,726
2
64
1,106
12

(4)

25th Evacuation Hospital
140
10,455

(6)

(6)

224
8.0
10,358
6,217
14
339
3,596
192
237
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital (400-bed), 8211th Medical Administrative Detachment
154
3,705

(6)

(6)

208
21.1
3,604
1,751
80
95
565
1,113
255
Korean Service Corps-station hospital (400-bed), 171st Evacuation Hospital
146
5,376

(6)

(6)

280
19.9
5,056
1,596
22
1,045
1
2,392
466
Prisoner-of-war hospitals, total
6,163
42,265
37,003
5,262
6,398
65.2
42,491
33,779
876
6,968

(4)

868
5,937
3d and 14th Field Hospitals (800-bed combined)12
4,789
8,020

(6)

(6)

3,864
147.6
11,475
8,033
591
2,234

(4)

617
1,334
64th Field Hospital (400-bed)
1,347
30,238

(6)

(6)

2,448
31.6
27,234
23,411
264
3,557

(4)

2
4,378
514th Medical Clearing Company13

(4)

2,741

(6)

(6)

72
6.7
2,599
1,561
19
770

(4)

249
142
1st Platoon (100-bed)

((4))

(585)

(6)

(6)

(19)
7.9
(559)
(200)
(5)
(231)

(4)

(123)
(26)
2nd Platoon (100-bed)

((4))

(1,556)

(6)

(6)

(32)
5.3
(1,487)
(884)
(2)
(475)

(4)

(126)
(69)
3d Platoon (100-bed)

((4))

(600)

(6)

(6)

(21)
9.2
(553)
(477)
(12)
(64)

(4)

(4)

(47)
543d Medical Clearing Company (200-bed)14

(4)

1,266

(6)

(6)

90
11.3
1,183
774
2
407

(4)

(4)

83


59

    1 Group totals estimated.
    2 As indicated in these notes, some hospitals were not operational throughout the entire calendar year. Averages in this column pertain to the actual period of operation for individual hospitals; for echelon and other groups, however, averages pertain to the entire year. Consequently, individual hospital averages as shown do not in all cases add to averages for the groups.
    3 Estimated on the basis of summary report data.
    4 Indicates no patients and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was smaller than 0.5 or 0.05, as applicable.
    5 In 1953, these hospitals were reorganized and redesignated from 200-bed units functioning as evacuation hospitals (and one specialized hospital) to 60-bed surgical hospitals with missions appropriate to that type of unit. For convenient reference, the new designations applicable in 1953 are shown in parentheses.
    6 Although group totals have been estimated, such estimates are not feasible, on the basis of available data, for individual hospitals. See discussion in text.
    7 Functioned as an evacuation hospital, January-May 1952, inclusive. In June 1952, this hospital was placed on a standby training basis, and was reopened in September 1952 as a 60-bed surgical hospital, operating as such through the remainder of the year.
    8 Functioning during the period May-December 1952, inclusive. This unit operated seven holding stations at points of transfer from ambulance to rail or air transport. This table does not reflect the unit's holding station operations, however ; patients received at transfer points and held for very brief periods awaiting further transportation are not accounted for as admissions or otherwise in summary statistical reports of hospital patients. Data shown pertain to personnel from organizations in the vicinity of those stations, for which the clearing company provided primary medical care.
    9 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive.
    10 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive. These two units were designated as the 123d Medical Holding Hospital.
    11 Functioning during the period January-May 1952, inclusive.
    12 These two units combined operated a single POW hospital at Pusan until the summer of 1952, when the 3d Field Hospital moved to the island of Cheju-do. However, single monthly reports for the two hospitals combined were received throughout 1952.
    13 Functioning during the period April-Deceraber 1952, inclusive.
    14 Functioning during the period August-December 1952, inclusive. The lst Platoon operated a 150-bed hospital, while the 2d and 3d Platoons each operated a 50-bed holding hospital for POW patients awaiting evacuation to the rear. However, only single monthly reports for the three platoons combined were received throughout 1952.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


60

Table 55.- Patient flow and other hospitalization data,
U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, U.S. Army personnel, nonbattle causes

Major echelon of operation, type of hospital function, and specific unit designation

Patient
census,
start
1952

Total admissions

Average
daily
number
beds
occupied2

Average
duration
in
hospital
(days)2

Disposition of patients by type

Patient
census,
end
1952

Total1

Initial1

Transfer1

All dis
positions

Duty

Death

Hospital
transfers
intra-
Korea

Evacuation
to Japan

Other
dis
positions

Field Army area hospitals, total
582
67,438
42,284
25,154
685
6.1
67,406
27,246
174
33,649
6,315
22
614
First level, close support, total
223
29,291
29,291

(4)

144
1.9
29,425
6,540
95
22,697
71
22
89
Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (200-bed),5 total
223
27,690
27,690

(4)

130
1.8
27,848
5,946
94
21,715
71
22
65
8055th MASH (43d Surgical)
70
9,271

(6)

(6)

34
1.5
9,321
1,244
22
8,054

(4)

1
20
8063d MASH (44th Surgical)
40
5,266

(6)

(6)

25
1.8
5,284
1,007
28
4,178
71

(4)

22
8076th MASH (45th Surgical)
22
5,802

(6)

(6)

21
1.3
5,818
1,619
18
4,167

(4)

14
6
8209th MASH (46th Surgical)
70
5,718

(6)

(6)

43
2.8
5,771
1,548
21
4,195

(4)

7
17
8225th MASH (47th Surgical)
21
1,633

(6)

(6)

22
2.0
1,654
528
5
1,121

(4)

(4)

(4)
Surgical hospital (mobile-army) (60-bed), 8225th MASH (47th Surgical)7

(4)

248

(6)

(6)

2
1.0
247
22
1
224

(4)

(4)

1
Transfer point, holding stations (60-120 bed), 629th Medical Clearing Co. (Sep)8

(4)

1,353

(6)

(6)

18
3.0
1,330
572

(4)

758

(4)

(4)

23
Second level, Army rear, total
359
38,147
13,196
24,951
541
6.7
37,981
20,706
79
10,952
6,244

(4)

525
Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (400-bed), total
359
34,889
11,915
22,974
432
4.6
34,867
18,398
50
10,363
6,056

(4)

381
11th Evacuation Hospital
184
13,296

(6)

(6)

227
6.3
13,379
7,612
23
3,655
2,089

(4)

101
121st Evacuation Hospital
175
21,593

(6)

(6)

205
3.6
21,488
10,786
27
6,708
3,967

(4)

280
Specialized treatment hospitals, total

(4)

3,258
1,281
1,977
109
14.9
3,114
2,308
29
589
188

(4)

144
Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury hospital (200-bed),5 8228th MASH (48th Surgical)9

(4)

1,625

(6)

(6)

103
18.0
1,506
1,057
28
421

(4)

(4)

119
Neuropsychiatric hospital (300-bed), 123d Medical Holding Co. and 212th Psychiatric Detachment10

(4)

1,633

(6)

(6)

42
7.4
1,608
1,251
1
168
188

(4)

25
Communications Zone hospitals, total (less POW)
891
30,716
19,760
10,956
737
9.3
30,934
21,432
13
1,185
8,283
21
673
Station, hospitals (400-bed), total
674
26,858
18,852
8,006
594
8.5
26,995
18,591
12
546
7,826
20
537
21st Evacuation Hospital
241
13,663

(6)

(6)

288
8.1
13,571
9,655
6
219
3,679
12
333
22d Evacuation Hospital11
322
4,262

(6)

(6)

267
9.7
4,584
3,504
2
60
1,014
4
(4)
25th Evacuation Hospital
111
8,933

(6)

(6)

190
8.0
8,840
5,432
4
267
3,133
4
204
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital (400-bed), 8211th Medical Administrative Detachment
75
1,851

(6)

(6)

84
17.0
1,813
1,281
1
74
456
1
113
Korean Service Corps-station hospital (400-bed), 171st Evacuation Hospital
142
2,007

(6)

(6)

58
10.4
2,126
1,560

(4)

565
1

(4)

23
Prisoner-of-war hospitals, total
3
1,785
1,785

(4)

27
5.7
1,775
671
3
1,098

(4)

3
13
3d and 14th Field Hospitals (800-bed combined)12

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

64th Field Hospital (400-bed)
3
1,501

(6)

(6)

25
6.2
1,494
460
2
1,032

(4)

(4)
10
514th Medical Clearing Company13

(4)

279

(6)

(6)

3
3.3
276
210
1
62

(4)

3
3
1st Platoon (100-bed)

(4)

(88)

(6)

(6)

(1)
2.5
(86)
(40)
(1)
(42)

((4))

(3)
(2)
2nd Platoon (100-bed)

(4)

(53)

(6)

(6)

(1)
3.8
(53)
(52)

((4))

(1)

((4))

((4))

((4))

3d Platoon (100-bed)

(4)

(138)

(6)

(6)

(2)
3.7
(137)
(118)

((4))

(19)

((4))

((4))

(1)
543d Medical Clearing Company (200-bed)14

(4)

5

(6)

(6)

(4)

3.0
5
1

(4)

4

(4)

(4)

(4)


61

    1 Group totals estimated.
    2 As indicated in these notes, some hospitals were not operational throughout the entire calendar year. Averages in this column pertain to the actual period of operation for individual hospitals; for echelon and other groups, however, averages pertain to the entire year. Consequently, individual hospital averages as shown do not in all cases add to averages for the groups.
    3 Estimated on the basis of summary report data.
    4 Indicates no patients and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was smaller than 0.5 or 0.05, as applicable.
    5 In 1953, these hospitals were reorganized and redesignated from 200-bed units functioning as evacuation hospitals (and one specialized hospital) to 60-bed surgical hospitals with missions appropriate to that type of unit. For convenient reference, the new designations applicable in 1953 are shown in parentheses.
    6 Although group totals have been estimated, such estimates are not feasible, on the basis of available data, for individual hospitals. See discussion in text.
    7 Functioned as an evacuation hospital, January-May 1952, inclusive. In June 1952, this hospital was placed on a standby training basis, and was reopened in September 1952 as a 60-bed surgical hospital, operating as such through the remainder of the year.
    8 Functioning during the period May-December 1952, inclusive. This unit operated seven holding stations at points of transfer from ambulance to rail or air transport. This table does not reflect the unit's holding station operations, however ; patients received at transfer points and held for very brief periods awaiting further transportation are not accounted for as admissions or otherwise in summary statistical reports of hospital patients. Data shown pertain to personnel from organizations in the vicinity of those stations, for which the clearing company provided primary medical care, and so forth.
    9 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive.
    10 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive. These two units were designated as the 123d Medical Holding Hospital.
    11 Functioning during the period January-May 1952, inclusive.
    12 These two units combined operated a single POW hospital at Pusan until the summer of 1952, when the 3d Field Hospital moved to the island of Cheju-do. However, single monthly reports for the two hospitals combined were received throughout 1952.
    13 Functioning during the period April-Deceraber 1952, inclusive.
    14 Functioning during the period August-December 1952, inclusive. The lst Platoon operated a 150-bed hospital, while the 2d and 3d Platoons each operated a 50-bed holding hospital for POW patients awaiting evacuation to the rear. However, only single monthly reports for the three platoons combined were received throughout 1952.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


62

Table 56.- Patient flow and other hospitalization data,
U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, all personnel, battle causes

Major echelon of operation, type of hospital function, and specific unit designation

Patient
census,
start
1952

Total admissions

Average
daily
number
beds
occupied2

Average
duration
in
hospital
(days)3

Disposition of patients by type

Patient
census,
end
1952

Total

Initial1

Transfer1

All dis
positions

Duty

Death

Hospital
transfers
intra-
Korea

Evacuation
to Japan

Other
dis
positions

Field Army area hospitals, total
145
22,838
13,704
9,134
156
4.3
22,875
968
456
15,098
5,627
726
108
First level, close support, total
72
13,205
13,204
1
79
2.3
13,238
424
401
11,389
298
726
39
Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (200-bed),4 total
72
12,546
12,546

(5)

78
2.3
12,580
414
398
10,745
298
725
38
8055th MASH (43d Surgical)
2
4,796

(6)

(6)

22
1.8
4,784
179
58
4,547

(5)

(5)

14
8063d MASH (44th Surgical)
28
3,266

(6)

(6)

19
2.2
3,288
53
175
2,762
298

(5)

6
8076th MASH (45th Surgical)
11
1,206

(6)

(6)

10
3.1
1,213
44
47
695

(5)

427
4
8209th MASH (46th Surgical)
22
2,914

(6)

(6)

24
3.1
2,922
112
112
2,400

(5)

298
14
8225th MASH (47th Surgical)
9
364

(6)

(6)

8
3.2
373
26
6
341

(5)

(5)

(5)

Surgical hospital (mobile-army) (60-bed), 8225th MASH (47th Surgical)7

(5)

539

(6)

(6)

6
1.1
538
9
3
526

(5)

(5)

1
Transfer point, holding stations (60-120 bed), 629th Medical Clearing Co. (Sep)8

(5)

120

(6)

(6)

1
0.3
120
1

(5)

118

(5)

1

(5)

Second level, Army rear, total
73
9,633
500
9,133
77
3.0
9,637
544
55
3,709
5,329

(5)

69
Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (400-bed), total
73
9,633
500
9,133
77
3.0
9,637
544
55
3,709
5,329

(5)

69
11th Evacuation Hospital
25
2,971

(6)

(6)

37
4.6
2,979
315
34
1,209
1,421

(5)

17
121st Evacuation Hospital
48
6,662

(6)

(6)

40
2.2
6,658
229
21
2,500
3,908

(5)

52
Specialized treatment hospitals, total

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

Communications Zone hospitals, total (less POW)
224
6,184
716
5,468
213
13.6
6,147
2,666
5
183
2,819
474
261
Station, hospitals (400-bed), total
135
4,298
557
3,741
84
7.8
4,389
1,742
2
79
2,539
27
44
21st Evacuation Hospital
65
1,627

(6)

(6)

28
7.6
1,678
628

(5)

36
993
21
14
22d Evacuation Hospital9
35
237

(6)

(6)

21
13.3
272
172
1
1
98

(5)

(5)
25th Evacuation Hospital
35
2,434

(6)

(6)

47
7.2
2,439
942
1
42
1,448
6
30
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital (400-bed), 8211th Medical Administrative Detachment
62
1,125

(6)

(6)

61
20.0
1,138
826

(5)

32
280

(5)

49
Korean Service Corps-station hospital (400-bed), 171st Evacuation Hospital
27
761

(6)

(6)

68
36.5
620
98
3
72

(5)

447
168
Prisoner-of-war hospitals, total
2,854
259
45
214
1,367
318.8
2,923
2,378
10
532

(5)

3
190
3d and 14th Field Hospitals (800-bed combined)10
2,854
259

(6)

(6)

1,367
318.8
2,923
2,378
10
532

(5)

3
190

    1 Group totals estimated.
    2 As indicated in these notes, some hospitals were not operational throughout the entire calendar year. Averages in this column pertain to the actual period of operation for individual hospitals; for echelon and other groups, however, averages pertain to the entire year. Consequently, individual hospital averages as shown do not in all cases add to averages for the groups.
    3 Estimated on the basis of summary report data.
    4 In 1953, these hospitals were reorganized and redesignated from 200-bed units functioning as evacuation hospitals (and one specialized hospital) to 60-bed surgical hospitals with missions appropriate to that type of unit. For convenient reference, the new designations applicable in 1953 are shown in parentheses.
    5Indicates no patients and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was smaller than 0.5 or 0.05, as applicable.
    6 Although group totals have been estimated, such estimates are not feasible, on the basis of available data, for individual hospitals. See discussion in text.
    7 Functioned as an evacuation hospital, January-May 1952, inclusive. In June 1952, this hospital was placed on a standby training basis, and was reopened in September 1952 as a 60-bed surgical hospital, operating as such through the remainder of the year.
    8 Functioning during the period May-December 1952, inclusive. This unit operated seven holding stations at points of transfer from ambulance to rail or air transport. This table does not reflect the unit's holding station operations, however ; patients received at transfer points and held for very brief periods awaiting further transportation are not accounted for as admissions or otherwise in summary statistical reports of hospital patients. Data shown pertain to personnel from organizations in the vicinity of those stations, for which the clearing company provided primary medical care, and so forth.
    9 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive.
    10 These two units combined operated a single POW hospital at Pusan until the summer of 1952, when the 3d Field Hospital moved to the island of Cheju-do. However, single monthly reports for the two hospitals combined were received throughout 1952.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


63

Table 57.- Patient flow and other hospitalization data,
U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, all personnel, battle causes

Major echelon of operation, type of hospital function, and specific unit designation

Patient
census,
start
1952

Total admissions

Average
daily
number
beds
occupied2

Average
duration
in
hospital
(days)3

Disposition of patients by type

Patient
census,
end
1952

Total

Initial1

Transfer1

All
dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital
transfers
intra-
Korea

Evacuation
to Japan

Other
dispositions

Field Army area hospitals, total
99
16,629
9,529
7,100
101
4.0
16,686
786
197
11,287
4,412
4
42
First level, close support, total
49
9,465
9,464
1
47
1.9
9,496
335
169
8,769
219
4
18
Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (200-bed),4 total
49
8,998
8,998

(5)

46
1.9
9,019
326
166
8,304
219
4
18
8055th MASH (43d Surgical)
1
3,578

(6)

(6)

14
1.7
3,570
143
38
3,389

(5)

(5)

9
8063d MASH (44th Surgical)
18
2,251

(6)

(6)

12
2.0
2,268
45
69
1,935
219

(5)

1
8076th MASH (45th Surgical)
9
577

(6)

(6)

3
1.9
586
33
5
547

(5)

1
(5)
8209th MASH (46th Surgical)
16
2,296

(6)

(6)

14
2.3
2,304
83
51
2,167

(5)

3
8
8225th MASH (47th Surgical)
5
286

(6)

(6)

5
2.5
291
22
3
266

(5)

(5)

(5)

Surgical hospital (mobile-army) (60-bed), 8225th MASH (47th Surgical)7

(5)

399

(6)

(6)

5
1.2
399
8
3
388

(5)

(5)

(5)

Transfer point, holding stations (60-120 bed), 629th Medical Clearing Co. (Sep)8

(5)

78

(6)

(6)

(5)
0.2
78
1

(5)

77

(5)

(5)

(5)

Second level, Army rear, total
50
7,164
65
7,099
54
2.8
7,190
451
28
2,518
4,193

(5)

24
Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (400-bed), total
50
7,164
65
7,099
54
2.8
7,190
451
28
2,518
4,193

(5)

24
11th Evacuation Hospital
21
2,705

(6)

2,705
32
4.4
2,713
297
19
1,059
1,338

(5)

13
121st Evacuation Hospital
29
4,459
65
4,394
22
1.8
4,477
154
9
1,459
2,855

(5)

11
Specialized treatment hospitals, total

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

Communications Zone hospitals, total (less POW)
199
5,160
519
4,641
136
10.3
5,277
2,479
1
135
2,660
2
82
Station, hospitals (400-bed), total
119
4,031
510
3,521
77
7.5
4,112
1,654
1
56
2,399
2
38
21st Evacuation Hospital
55
1,479
198
1,281
24
6.9
1,525
581

(5)

26
918

(5)

9
22d Evacuation Hospital9
31
230
5
225
20
13.1
261
166

(5)

1
94

(5)

(5)

25th Evacuation Hospital
33
2,322
307
2,015
45
7.2
2,326
907
1
29
1,387
2
29
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital (400-bed), 8211th Medical Administrative Detachment
55
1,004
2
1,002
54
19.8
1,015
727

(5)

27
261

(5)

44
Korean Service Corps-station hospital (400-bed), 171st Evacuation Hospital
25
125
7
118
6
16.2
150
98

(5)

52

(5)

(5)

(5)

Prisoner-of-war hospitals, total

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

    1 Group totals estimated.
    2 As indicated in these notes, some hospitals were not operational throughout the entire calendar year. Averages in this column pertain to the actual period of operation for individual hospitals; for echelon and other groups, however, averages pertain to the entire year. Consequently, individual hospital averages as shown do not in all cases add to averages for the groups.
    3 Estimated on the basis of summary report data.
    4 In 1953, these hospitals were reorganized and redesignated from 200-bed units functioning as evacuation hospitals (and one specialized hospital) to 60-bed surgical hospitals with missions appropriate to that type of unit. For convenient reference, the new designations applicable in 1953 are shown in parentheses.
    5Indicates no patients and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was smaller than 0.5 or 0.05, as applicable.
    6 Although group totals have been estimated, such estimates are not feasible, on the basis of available data, for individual hospitals. See discussion in text.
    7 Functioned as an evacuation hospital, January-May 1952, inclusive. In June 1952, this hospital was placed on a standby training basis, and was reopened in September 1952 as a 60-bed surgical hospital, operating as such through the remainder of the year.
    8 Functioning during the period May-December 1952, inclusive. This unit operated seven holding stations at points of transfer from ambulance to rail or air transport. This table does not reflect the unit's holding station operations, however ; patients received at transfer points and held for very brief periods awaiting further transportation are not accounted for as admissions or otherwise in summary statistical reports of hospital patients. Data shown pertain to personnel from organizations in the vicinity of those stations, for which the clearing company provided primary medical care, and so forth.
    9 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


64

surgical hospital and, in October 1952, was placed in support of a U.S. Army infantry division near the Punchbowl area.

From these hospitals, patients were transported by ambulance to the air bases and railheads (where holding stations were operated by a separate medical clearing company) for air or rail evacuation to two 400-bed semimobile evacuation hospitals. The latter two hospitals were authorized to determine the next destination of patients requiring evacuation to southern Korea and to Japan. They were, too far to the rear to furnish close support or to function as evacuation hospitals in the strictest sense; therefore, to distinguish them from the close-support evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 200 bed), the term "second level-Army rear" has been coined.

From tables 54-57, it may be seen that all admissions at the close-support 200-bed evacuation hospitals and at the surgical hospital were initial admissions, while about three-quarters of all dispositions were transfers to other hospitals in Korea. These, units operated in, immediate support of the frontline troops and, therefore, received their patients either directly or from aid stations and clearing companies. On the other hand, the second-level 400-bed evacuation hospitals received almost all (90 percent) of their patients by transfer from the frontline hospitals. About one-half of the dispositions at second-level 400-bed evacuation hospitals were returns to duty, about one-fourth were evacuations to Japan, and one-fourth were transfers to communications zone hospitals in Korea.

Tables 54-57 also include data for two specialized treatment hospitals which were part of the field army area hospitalization system in Korea. The specialized treatment center for epidemic hemorrhagic fever was established in April 1952, and operated by a unit with table-of-organization-and-equipment designations as a mobile army surgical hospital. During the winter of 1952-53, this hospital also functioned as the Eighth U.S. Army Cold Injury Treatment Center. A neuropsychiatric hospital was also established in April 1952 to treat and rehabilitate all neuropsychiatric cases for U.S. and U.N. Forces in Korea. This hospital was operated by a medical holding company combined with a psychiatric detachment.


COMMUNICATIONS ZONE HOSPITALS

Tables 54-57 also identify the U.S. Army units and present the patient flow and other hospitalization data for U.S. Army hospitals in the communications zone. (As used here, the term " communications zone " refers to location and function rather than to organizational affiliation. The Korean Communications Zone per se did not become operational until August 1952, at which time it assumed control of the existing hospitals operating in the rear areas.) The rear-area hospitals in Korea during 1952 consisted of four 400-bed evacuation hospitals, which functioned as station hospitals and also provided care for patients evacuated from forward medical treatment facilities. One of these (22d Evacuation Hospital) became inoperational in June 1952. Another (171st Evacuation, Hospital) provided hospital support to the Korean Service Corps (labor) personnel. In addition, there was an Army unit which operated with the Swedish Red Cross Hospital.

The communications zone hospitals received about one-half of their nonbattle admissions as initial admissions and one-half as admissions by transfer from other hospitals. Almost all of the battle admissions were by transfer. Most of the dispositions at the communications zone hospitals were returns to duty. Evacuations to Japan made up about one-fourth of their dispositions.


PRISONER-OF-WAR HOSPITALS

Detailed information for enemy POW hospitals operated by U.S. Army units in Korea during 1952 are also included in tables 54-57. Three field hospitals and two medical clearing companies operated a total of nine POW hospitals. The 3d Field hospital and the 14th Field hospital operated a combined POW hospital at Pusan until the summer of 1952, when the 3d Field hospital moved to the island of Cheju-do. However, only a consolidated monthly Beds and Patients Report for both hospitals combined was received throughout 1952. Therefore, the data are presented as for one hospital, rather than for each of the two hospitals. The 64th Field hospital was the third U.S. Army unit of this type. The remaining six POW hospitals were operated by the three platoons of each of two separate medical clearing companies. While, reports were received from each of the three platoons of one of these units, the 514th Medical Clearing Company, only a consolidated report was furnished by the 543d Medical Clearing, Company. For the latter, the combined data are presented as for one hospital rather than


65

for each of the three hospitals which the company actually operated.


CATEGORY OF PERSONNEL

As a presentation of admission workload, table 58 deals with total hospital admissions; that is, initial admissions and admissions by transfer combined.

Approximately 81 percent (84,067) of the 103,544 admissions (including transfer admissions) to U.S. Army field army area hospitals in Korea during 1952 were Army personnel (table 58). Other U.S. active-duty military personnel accounted for 2,119 admissions (2 percent), while the remaining 17 percent was comprised of 10,823 allied, and neutral military personnel, 456 prisoners of war, and 6,079 "others" (chiefly Korean civilians, but also American National Red Cross personnel, correspondents, and others). The distribution was similar for the 45,472 admissions at the communications zone hospitals, where U.S. Army personnel were responsible for 79 percent of all admissions, other active-duty U.S. military personnel for 4 percent, and other personnel for 17 percent. At the Korean Service Corps station hospital, "other" patients (mainly Korean Service Corps personnel) made up 63 percent of the admissions; and at the POW hospitals, prisoners of war made up 83 percent of the admissions. The percentages of U.S. Army personnel in the total admitted to the latter two types of hospitals were 35 percent and 4 percent, respectively.


CAUSE OF ADMISSION

As did the preceding table, table 59 deals with total hospital admissions, presenting initial and transfer admissions according to cause groups for all patients and for U.S. Army patients. For the Korean area as a whole, the distribution by cause group of initial admissions alone is also of interest. During the year 1952, there were 128,339 initial admissions of all personnel to Army hospitals in this area: 14,465 of battle casualty patients (11 percent of all initial admissions) and 113,874 for nonbattle causes. Initial admissions of U.S. Army personnel for all causes numbered 73,877, of which 10,048 (14 percent) were battle casualty patients and 63,829 were patients admitted for nonbattle causes. Army patients made up 59 percent of those initially admitted for all causes; 69 percent of the initial admissions of battle casualties were Army patients, while initial admissions of Army nonbattle patients represented 56 percent of all patients initially admitted for nonbattle causes.

As seen in table 59, there were 103,544 total admissions (including transfer admissions) of all personnel at field army area hospitals, of which 80,706 (78 percent) were for nonbattle causes (disease and nonbattle injury combined) while 22,838 (22 percent) were for battle causes. U.S. Army personnel accounted for 84 percent of all the nonbattle admissions and 73 percent of all the battle admissions at field army area hospitals. Of the total 84,067 admissions to field army area hos-

Table 58.- Admissions1 to hospital for all causes, by category of personnel and
by type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952

Major echelon of operation
and type of hospital function
Total
hospital
admissions
Active-duty military personnel Other personnel
Army Navy Marine
Corps
Air
Force
Allied and
neutral
military
personnel
POW Other
Field Army area hospitals
103,544
84,067
63
673
1,383
10,823
456
6,079
Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)
46,703
36,678
7
132
101
5,940
196
3,649
Surgical (mobile-army)
888
647
--
1
--
152
--
88
Holding hospitals
1,603
1,431
--
1
1
108
2
60
Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)
50,284
42,053
47
354
1,163
4,319
258
2,090
Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury hospital
2,237
1,625
9
183
6
223
--
191
Neuropsychiatric hospital
1,829
1,633
--
2
112
81
--
1
Communications Zone hospitals
45,472
35,876
41
112
1,462
2,039
60
5,882
Station hospitals
34,505
30,889
40
108
1,386
1,296
6
780
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital
4,830
2,855
--
1
31
684
--
1,259
Korean Service Corps station hospital
6,137
2,132
1
3
45
59
54
3,843
Prisoner-of-war hospitals
42,524
1,785
3
--
--
101
35,271
5,364

    1Admissions shown in this table represent not just initial admissions, but the sum of initial and transfer admissions; thus, a particular patient may be reported at several echelons, and the total shown will be greater than the number of initial admissions to hospital.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


66

Table 59.- Admissions1 to hospital, by cause of admission and by
type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952

Major echelon of operation
and type of hospital function
All personnel U.S. Army personnel
All causes Nonbattle Battle All causes Nonbattle Battle
Number Number % Number % Number Number % Number %
Field Army area hospitals
103,544
80,706
77.9
22,838
22.1
84,067
67,438
80.2
16,629
19.8
Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)
46,703
34,157
73.1
12,546
26.9
36,678
27,690
75.5
8,988
24.5
Surgical (mobile-army)
888
349
39.3
539
60.7
647
248
38.3
399
61.7
Holding hospitals
1,603
1,483
92.5
120
7.5
1,431
1,353
94.5
78
5.5
Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)
50,284
40,651
80.8
9,633
19.2
42,053
34,889
83.0
7,164
17.0
Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury hospital
2,237
2,237
100.0
--
--
1,625
1,625
100.0
--
--
Neuropsychiatric hospital
1,829
1,829
100.0
--
--
1,633
1,633
100.0
--
--
Communications Zone hospitals
45,472
39,288
86.4
6,184
13.6
35,876
30,716
85.6
5,160
14.4
Station hospitals
34,505
30,207
87.5
4,298
12.5
30,889
26,858
87.0
4,031
13.0
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital
4,830
3,705
76.7
1,125
23.3
2,855
1,851
64.8
1,004
35.2
Korean Service Corps station hospital
6,137
5,376
87.6
761
12.4
2,132
2,007
94.1
125
5.9
Prisoner-of-war hospitals
42,524
42,265
99.4
259
0.6
1,785
1,785
100.0
--
--

    1Admissions shown in this table represent not just initial admissions, but the sum of initial and transfer admissions; thus, a particular patient may be reported at several echelons, and the total shown will be greater than the number of initial admissions to hospital.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

Table 60.- Dispositions from hospital, by type of hospital within major
operational echelon, for selected types of dispositions, U.S. Army hospitals, Kprea, 1952

Major echelon of Operation
and type of hospital function

Total dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital transfers

Evacuation

Other1

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
All Personnel
All U.S. Army hospitals, Korea
194,065
100.0
94, 509
100.0
1,853
100.0
64,942
100.0
25,638
100.0
7,123
100.0
Field Army area hospitals
103,493
53.3
32,113
34.0
828
44.7
55,453
85.4
13,447
52.4
1,652
23.2
Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)
46,915
24.2
7,929
8.4
610
32.9
36,392
56.0
387
1.5
1,597
22.4
Surgical (mobile-army)
883
0.5
38

(2)

5
0.3
840
1.3

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Holding hospitals
1,577
0.8
630
0.7

(2)

(2)

930
1.4

(2)

(2)

17
0.3
Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)
50,228
25.8
20,756
22.0
162
8.7
16,464
25.4
12,846
50.1

(2)

(2)

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury
2,091
1.1
1,386
1.5
50
2.7
618
1.0

(2)

(2)

37
0.5
Neuropsychiatric hospital
1,799
0.9
1,374
1.4
1
0.1
209
0.3
214
0.8
1
0.0
Communications Zone hospitals
45,158
23.3
26,239
27.7
139
7.5
1,989
3.1
12,191
47.6
4,600
64.6
Station hospitals
34,740
18.0
21,968
23.2
34
1.8
745
1.2
11,345
44.3
648
9.1
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital
4,742
2.4
2,577
2.7
80
4.3
127
0.2
845
3.3
1,113
15.6
Korean Service Corps hospital
5,676
2.9
1,694
1.8
25
1.4
1,117
1.7
1

(2)

2,839
39.9
Prisoner-of-war hospitals
45,414
23.4
36,157
38.3
886
47.8
7,500
11.5

(2)

(2)

871
12.2
U.S. Army personnel
All U.S. Army hospitals, Korea
122,078
100.0
52,614
100.0
388
100.0
47,354
100.0
21,670
100.0
52
100.0
Field Army area hospitals
84,092
68.8
28,032
53.3
371
95.6
44,936
94.6
10,727
49.5
26
50.0
Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)
36,867
30.2
6,272
11.9
260
67.0
30,019
63.4
290
1.3
26
50.0
Surgical (mobile-army)
646
0.5
30
0.1
4
1.0
612
1.3

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Holding hospitals
1,408
1.2
573
1.1

(2)

(2)

835
1.8

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)
42,057
34.4
18,849
35.8
78
20.1
12,881
27.2
10,249
47.3

(2)

(2)

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury
1,506
1.2
1,057
2.0
28
7.2
421
0.9

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Neuropsychiatric hospital
1,608
1.3
1,251
2.4
1
0.3
168
0.3
188
0.9

(2)

(2)

Communications Zone hospitals
36,211
29.7
23,911
45.5
14
3.6
1,320
2.8
10,943
50.5
23
44.2
Station hospitals
31,107
25.5
20,245
38.5
13
3.3
602
1.3
10,225
47.2
22
42.3
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital
2,828
2.3
2, 008
3.8
1
0.3
101
0.2
717
3.3
1
1.9
Korean Service Corps hospital
2,276
1.9
1, 658
3.2

(2)

(2)

617
1.3
1

(2)

(2)

(2)

Prisoner-of-war hospitals
1,775
1.5
671
1.2
3
0.8
1,098
2.3

(2)

(2)

3
5.8

    1 Includes transfers to quarters and patients listed as AWOL.
    2 Indicates that no dispositions were reported, or that a computed percentage was less than 0.05.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


67

Table 61.- Percentage distribution of dispositions from hospital,
by type of disposition, for selected groupings of U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952

Major echelon of Operation
and type of hospital function
All personnel U.S. Army personnel
Total
dispositions
Duty Death Hospital
transfers
intra-
Korea
Evacuation
to Japan
Other1 Total
dispositions
Duty Death Hospital
transfers
intra-
Korea
Evacuation
to Japan
Other1
Field Army area hospitals
100.0
31.0
0.8
53.6
13.0
1.6
100.0
33.3
0.4
53.4
12.8

(2)

First level, close support
100.0
17.4
1.2
77.3
0.8
3.3
100.0
17.7
0.7
80.8
0.7
0.1
Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)
100.0
16.9
1.3
77.6
0.8
3.4
100.0
17.0
0.7
81.4
0.8
0.1
Surgical (mobile-army)
100.0
4.3
0.6
95.1

(2)

(2)

100.0
4.6
0.6
94.7

(2)

(2)

Holding hospitals
100.0
39.9

(2)

59.0

(2)

1.1
100.0
40.7

(2)

59.3

(2)

(2)

Second level, Army rear
100.0
43.5
0.4
32.0
24.1
0.1
100.0
46.8
0.2
29.8
23.1

(2)

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)
100.0
41.3
0.3
32.8
25.6

(2)

100.0
44.8
0.2
30.6
24.4

(2)

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury
100.0
66.3
2.4
29.6

(2)

1.8
100.0
70.2
1.9
28.0

(2)

(2)

Neuropsychiatric hospital
100.0
76.4
0.1
11.6
11.9
0.1
100.0
77.8
0.1
10.4
11.7

(2)

Communications Zone hospitals
100.0
58.1
0.3
4.4
27.0
10.2
100.0
66.0

(2)

3.6
30.2
0.1
Station hospitals
100.0
63.2
0.1
2.1
32.7
1.9
100.0
65.1

(2)

1.9
32.9
0.1
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital
100.0
54.3
1.7
2.7
17.8
23.5
100.0
71.1

(2)

3.6
5.4

(2)

Korean Service Corps hospital
100.0
29.8
0.4
19.7

(2)

50.0
100.0
72.8

(2)

27.1

(2)

(2)

Prisoner-of-war hospitals
100.0
79.6
2.0
16.5

(2)

1.9
100.0
37.8
0.2
61.9

(2)

0.2

    1 Includes transfers to quarters and patients listed as AWOL.
    2 Indicates that a computed percentage was less than 0.05.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

pitals for U.S. Army personnel, 67,438 (80 percent) were nonbattle and 16,629 (20 percent) were battle admissions. At communications zone hospitals, 86 percent of the total admissions for all personnel were for nonbattle causes, while 14 percent were battle admissions. For most of the groups which have been combined by type of hospital function, nonbattle causes accounted for the great majority of the admissions. The exception was the lone surgical hospital (mobile army), where battle admissions represented 61 percent of the total, compared with only 39 percent for nonbattle admissions. For the other groups, the percentage which nonbattle admissions constituted of all admissions for all personnel ranged from 73 percent for evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 200 bed) to 100 percent for the two specialized treatment hospitals.


TYPE OF DISPOSITION

Tables 60 and 61 show that 194,065 dispositions (including dispositions by transfer) of all personnel (including enemy POW patients) were accomplished by U.S. Army hospitals in Korea during 1952. Of these dispositions, 64,942 were transfers between hospitals within Korea and 25,638 were patients evacuated to Japan. There were 94,509 patients returned to duty, 1,853 deaths, and 7,123 other dispositions (mainly transfers to quarters and patients listed as absent without leave).

Table 60 indicates, as might be expected, that 85 percent of all intra-Korea transfers of patients involved the rearward movement of patients from hospitals in the field army area, while only 3 percent were transfers between hospitals of the communications zone; the balance (12 percent) represents transfers from POW hospitals. Prisoner-of-war patients transferred between POW hospitals represented 10 percent of the intra-Korea, transfers, and 2 percent were U.S. military Personnel transferred from POW hospitals to other U.S. hospitals in Korea.

Of the total number of patients evacuated to Japan, about 52 percent came from field army hospitals (almost all from the second-level evacuation hospitals, semimobile, 400 bed), while 48 percent came from communications zone hospitals (largely from the station hospitals). No POW patients were evacuated to Japan.

At field army area hospitals occurred 34 percent of all the returns to duty and 45 percent of all deaths. Most of the deaths were reported by the close-support evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 200 bed), while most of the returns to duty from field army area hospitals came from the Army rear area, evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 400 bed). Among


68

all personnel in U.S. Army hospitals in Korea during 1952, 48 percent of all deaths occurred at the POW hospitals. However, the inclusion of enemy POW patients fit the figures for all personnel tends to distort the hospital pattern by echelon of operation. For example, when the 122,078 dispositions of U.S. Army patients are considered separately, it may be seen that 95 percent of all of the intra-Korea transfers of U.S. Army patients originated at field army hospitals. The pattern of patients evacuated to Japan is consistent, however, since no enemy POW patients were included.

The percentage distributions in table 61 show the relative frequency of each type of disposition among all, dispositions from the several hospital-function groups. These proportions follow the patterns that might be expected: The proportion of dispositions which were "final" is lowest for hospitals closer to the front, and, correspondingly, the relative number of transfers is higher at the direct-support hospitals and lower at the rearward hospitals. For example, hospitals in close support at the first level returned 17.7 percent of Army patients to duty and transferred 80.8 percent to other hospitals in Korea. At the second level, in the field army rear, 46.8 percent of the Army patients went to duty; and 52.9 percent were moved to other hospitals for further treatment, with 23.1 percent of all dispositions being evacuated to Japan and 29.8 percent being transferred to communications zone hospitals in Korea. At the latter hospitals, two-thirds (66 percent) of the Army patients were returned to duty.


HOSPITAL DEATH RATIOS

In connection with data on hospital deaths in tables 60 and 61, it is important to emphasize that they do not provide a basis for qualitative consideration of the hospital care provided. Any such consideration would require analysis of a large volume of data (such as data on diagnoses, and data on time-lapse between injury and admission) which are not directly related to the purposes of these data and should, in any event, be based on ratios adjusted to take into account the varying proportion of "final" to total dispositions.

The battle casualty "case fatality rate" (2.5 percent) for Korea, which has been reported elsewhere in comparisons with those for earlier wars, is derived from relating the total number who died of wounds, whether in hospital or in another type of medical treatment facility, to the total number who were excused from duty as wounded in action. Since these data pertain only to hospitalized patients, case fatality ratios of the same type, cannot be derived from them.


AVERAGE PATIENT CENSUS AND AVERAGE DURATION OF HOSPITALIZATION

As may be seen in table 62, the average daily number of beds occupied by all classes of personnel at U.S. Army hospitals in Korea, during 1952, was 10,141 and the estimated average duration of hospitalization was 33 days per case.

Table 62 shows that field army hospitals had an average bed occupancy of 1,001 patients, compared with 1,375 for the communications zone hospitals. The average bed occupancy of 7,765 patients at POW hospitals represented approximately 76 percent of the total number of patients occupying beds on the average day during 1952 in, Korea. The estimated average duration of hospitalization per case was 6.7 days for all personnel at field army hospitals, 11.9 days at communications zone hospitals, and 76.8 days at POW hospitals.

The large numbers of POW patients apparently exerted an overwhelming influence on the overall averages and, therefore, have tended to distort the pattern of hospital load in terms of echelon of operation. This effect may be seen when data for U.S. Army personnel are considered separately (table 62). The average of 1,683 U.S. Army patients was distributed as 782 in field army hospitals, 873 in communications zone hospitals, and the balance (27) in POW hospitals. The overall average duration of hospitalization for U.S. Army patients in Korea during 1952 was 10.7 days per case; an average of 6.8 days was spent in field army hospitals, and 9.5 days were spent in communications zone hospitals for each case hospitalized in them during 1952. It is of interest to note that the close-support evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 200 bed) show an average duration of about 2 days per case regardless of class of patients (those admitted for battle causes or those admitted for nonbattle causes), while the second-level evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 400 bed) show an average duration of stay of approximately 3 days for battle patients, compared with about 5 days for nonbattle patients. The daily average beds occupied figures of 103 for U.S. Army personnel at the hemorrhagic and cold injury hospital and of 43 at the neuropsychiatric hospital compared to the daily average of 133 and


69

Table 62.- Average bed occupancy and average duration of hospitalization,
by cause of admission and by type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952

Major echelon of Operation
and type of hospital function

Daily average number of beds occupied

Average duration in hospital (days)1

All causes

Nonbattle

Battle

All causes

Nonbattle

Battle

All Personnel
All U.S. Army hospitals, Korea
10,141
8,405
1,736
33.0
31.8
41.0
Field Army area hospitals
1,001
845
156
6.7
7.6
4.3
Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)
270
192
78
2.2
2.1
2.3
Surgical (mobile-army)
10
4
6
1.2
1.3
1.1
Holding hospitals
20
19
1
2.8
3.0
0.3
Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)
582
505
77
4.3
4.6
3.0
Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury
133
133

(2)

16.8
16.8

(2)

Neuropsychiatric hospital
48
48

(2)

7.4
7.4

(2)

Communications Zone hospitals
1,375
1,162
213
11.9
11.6
13.6
Station hospitals
758
674
84
8.5
8.5
7.8
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital
269
208
61
20.9
21.1
20.0
Korean Service Corps hospital
348
280
68
21.9
19.9
36.5
Prisoner-of-war hospitals
7,765
6,398
1,367
76.8
65.2
318.8
U.S. Army personnel
All U.S. Army hospitals, Korea
1,683
1,445
238
10.7
11.1
8.9
Field Army area hospitals
782
681
101
6.8
7.6
4.0
Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)
176
130
46
1.8
1.8
1.9
Surgical (mobile-army)
7
2
5
1.1
1.0
1.2
Holding hospitals
18
18

(2)

2.8
3.0
0.2
Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)
486
432
54
4.3
4.6
2.8
Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury
103
103

(2)

18.0
18.0

(2)

Neuropsychiatric hospital
42
42

(2)

7.4
7.4

(2)

Communications Zone hospitals
873
737
136
9.5
9.3
10.3
Station hospitals
671
594
77
8.4
8.5
7.5
Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital
138
84
54
18.0
17.0
19.8
Korean Service Corps hospital
64
58
6
10.8
10.4
16.2
Prisoner-of-war hospitals
27
27

(2)

5.7
5.7

(2)

    1 For patients remaining in U.S. Army hospitals in Korea at the end of 1952 and those evacuated to Japan, the average include only the time lost in U.S. Army hospitals in Korea during 1952.
    2 Indicates that no admission, days, and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was less than 0.5 for number of beds occupied and less than 0.05 for days in hospital.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

48, respectively, for all personnel hospitalized at these two specialized treatment centers. The average duration of stay per case during 1952 for U.S. Army personnel was approximately 18 days at the former and 7 days at the latter hospital. U.S. Army patients in communications zone hospitals averaged 10.3 days per case for battle patients, compared with 9.3 days per case for nonbattle patients. U.S. Army personnel hospitalized at the Swedish Red Cross hospital in 1952 averaged 1.8 days per case, and U.S. Army patients hospitalized at the Korean Service Corps station hospital averaged about 1.1 days per case.

It might be noted, however, that these tables do not include data on the relatively small number of Army patients hospitalized by U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy medical treatment facilities. In Korea, during 1952, there were 512 Army patients admitted (of which 490 were initial admissions) to Air Force organizations operating hospital beds, with a daily average bed occupancy of eight Army patients. Also, 1,970 Army patients were admitted (including 899 initial admissions) to U.S. Navy hospital ships, with a daily average of 75 beds occupied by such Army patients during 1952. Neither do these tables include data on the relatively small numbers of U.S. Army patients hospitalized in allied military medical treatment facilities. With one exception, such patients were accounted for in Beds and Patients Reports from Army hospitals designated by appropriate headquarters as administratively responsible for Army patients in specified "nearby" allied facilities. At the Swedish Red Cross Hospital, the exception, Beds and Patients Reports on Army patients were submitted by an Army medical organization serving with that particular hospital.

Estimates for logistical guidance, however, may be obtained from measurement of the patient flow and the patient load at individual facilities, by type of hospital, at different echelons of operation, and for the several classes of patients reflected in these data.

 

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